GCSE Revision - Population - Migration

Basic Facts
Migration is the movement of people from one region to another on a permanent basis

What are the main Characteristics?

  • It usually occurs over some considerable distances and can be from country to country

  • International migrants are called immigrants (migrants who come into a country) and emigrants (migrants who leave a country)

  • In Medc's most internal migrants move from urban areas to rural areas

  • In Ledc's most internal movement is from rural areas to urban areas

  • Forced Migration is where people who are known as refugees migrate to escape persecution or natural disasters

  • Voluntary migration us where people move to improve their quality of life

Why do people migrate?

  • Economic - To improve job prospects, income and standard of living which is usually the most important for the majority of people.

  • Social - The prospect of better educational opportunities, better medical services, or the desire to join families and friends.

  • Political - Religious or Political persecution, forcing people to flee for their lives.

  • Environmental - Problems caused by drought, famine, epidemics, volcanic eruptions or other environmental disasters.

Push & Pull Factors

  • Push factors - are disadvantages or problems with an area that cause people to leave - such as few jobs, lack of educational or medical facilities & religious persecution

  • Pull Factors - are advantages that attract migrants to a particular destination - They are often the opposite of push factors or could be more specific as in many wishing to come to Britain for their knowledge of the language for example

International Migration


Main features of International Migration

  • International migration is the movement of populations between countries

  • Around 70 million people migrate between countries every year

  • This type of migration is less common than internal population due to the longer distances involved and the political controls imposed by countries to restrict the free movement of people

Benefits of Migration

Costs of Migration

  • Relief of shortages such as jobs, housing for country of departure

  • Emigrants send money back to their families

  • If migrants return they take back new skills with them

  • Reduction of birth rate as it is mainly the young males who leave the country

  • The host country acquire young energetic workers with enterprise

  • Cultural diversification and a more multi-ethnic society develops

  • Unwanted jobs are filled by cheap labour


  • The country of departure loses its most enterprising individuals

  • Only the very young and old remain creating a vicious circle of decline

  • Growth of emigration culture

  • Inhabitants depend on remittances from the people who have emigrated

  • In the host country there is increased pressure on resources such as housing

  • Discrimination can develop against the ethnic minorities

  • Congestion can develop in cities

  • Disease can spread - TB

  • Social problems can develop due predominance of young male migrants

Links - Case studies

Common Questions

  • Describe how push and pull factors can cause migration

  • What are the effects of migration on areas from where people are moving from and on the areas that receive immigrants that you have studied

  • What do we mean b y the word migration

  • What are the advantages of migration

  • What is a Refugee

  • What are the political and economic factors that produce refugees