BBHS CASE STUDY - Voluntary Migration - Turkish Migrants into Germany by Rachael Scarisbrick
After the Second World War, which ended in 1941, Germany was in a state of economic collapse and needed rebuilding. The country had lost over 4.5 million people in the war and many more; especially the Jewish population had left the country for fear of persecution. Germany used aid from abroad to develop new industries in many cities. However, there was a big shortage of labour that threatened the industrial recovery because there were more job vacancies than workers so extra labour was needed. Germany solved this problem by importing ‘guest workers’ especially from Turkey, Italy and Greece. These countries were less developed than Germany so people migrated to gain work, earn money and live in a more developed country.
Where did the migrants work?
Many of the migrants initially went into farming but then moved into better-paid jobs in factories and the construction industry. These jobs were jobs that were not wanted by the Germans because they were dirty and unskilled jobs, which were poorly paid and often demanded working long, unsociable hours. A car factory also employed 5000 Turks in Cologne. By 1989, Germany had 4.5 million guest workers, which accounted for about 7.4% of the whole workforce in Germany and of these migrants, 29% had come form Turkey.
The Advantages of the Turkish migrants moving to Germany are:
· Jobs- The migrants are a cheap source of labour for carrying out the dangerous jobs e.g. working in an asbestos factory. Also the migrants can be given the unskilled and unsociable jobs which the people of Germany do not want to do e.g. street cleaning, but which have to be done. The migrants could also overcome the labour shortages and help to develop Germany more.
· Having migrants coming from a different country can provide culture links and advantages. These are important because they attract tourism to a country and help it to develop.
· Some migrants could be very highly skilled and could be an asset to the country.
The disadvantages of the Turkish migrants moving to Germany are:
· The immigrants are most likely to be the first to be unemployed in a recession.
· Germany needs to provide housing for the migrants which results in their being low quality, overcrowded housing, which lacks basic immenities. This makes the country look overcrowded and run down and therefore slows down development.
· There may be language difficulties between the Germans and the Turkish, which could cause racial tension as the ethnic groups, may not intregate.
· The Turkish may have limited skills or education, which would make it difficult for the Germans to employ them.
The Advantages for Turkey once the Turkish Migrants have left are:
· There is a reduce in pressure on jobs so therefore reduction in unemployment.
· The people lost are usually of a childbearing age so therefore a decline in birth rate should occur and therefore puts loess strain on vital resources.
· The migrants who have gone to Germany develop new skills, which they may bring back to Turkey and therefore help to develop it.
· The money that the Migrants earn in Germany may be sent back to their home country to help out their families.
The disadvantages for Turkey once the Turkish Migrants have left are:
· People are lost in the working age group so therefor fewer people are available to work and develop the country.
· People who migrate are those who are most likely to have some skills and education so therefore they are losing the future of there workforce and development.
· Many males migrate which cause a division in families and a vital loss to the villages as the males are needed to work there.
· Turkey is left with the ageing population, which causes it to have a high death rate.